When researching bronze especially in the domestic both bronze and brass appear as objects like cutlery place mates decorative objects. However there is a difference between the two materials.

The Metal super market an online metal shops gives definitions between, brass and bronze.

“Brass is mainly an alloy that consists of copper with zinc added. Brasses can have varying amounts of zinc or other elements added. These varying mixtures produce a wide range of properties and variation in colour. Increased amounts of zinc provide the material with improved strength and ductility. Brass can range in colour from red to yellow depending on the amount of zinc added to the alloy”  (Metal Supermarkets UK – Stainless Steel, Aluminium, Bright, Black, Engineering, Bronze, Copper, Brass, Tool, Galvanized, 2017)

“Bronze is an alloy that consists primarily of copper with the addition of other ingredients. In most cases the ingredient added is typically tin, but arsenic, phosphorus, aluminium, manganese, and silicon can also be used to produce different properties in the material. All of these ingredients produce an alloy much harder than copper alone. Bronze is characterised by its dull-gold colour. You can also tell the difference between bronze and brass because bronze will have faint rings on its surface” (Metal Supermarkets UK – Stainless Steel, Aluminium, Bright, Black, Engineering, Bronze, Copper, Brass, Tool, Galvanized, 2017)

Starting with a simple google search of ‘metal table wear’ revealed the items:

  • cutlery
  • small pots
  • plates
  • place matts
  • cooking utensils like pots and pans
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    When i searched for bronze table wear, the majority of the pictures were of cutlery with the odd plate. however by the looks of these plates a finishes they look like metal paint or glaze something that isnt a solid deposit of bronze.

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  • I don’t mind using metal glazes or lusters i think they are very beautiful and take still and knowledge to use in an effective way. From my visit to new designers m Lawsons ceramic work with the gold and silver bimorphic shapes bubbling over the side is made with some sort of luster or glaze. 20170629_112255

My next web search was just bronze objects.

  • sculptures,
  • bowls
  • vases
  • historical objects like the verdigris
  • some odd shaped thing which is described as money in the shape of the sun.

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Bronze tools:

  • hammers
  • spears
  • blades
  • knifes

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  • From one of the previous searches one of the picture with a bronze sun shaped object caught my attention. The description from the online auction website where it had previously been auctioned off, describes the collection as bronze amulte or a psedo which is money of form of the sun, along side a bronze sickle and an arrow head. It was dated back to 1100/700 B.C from Europe (Catawiki, 2017)The fact that this sun shape was actually money intrigued me and the fact ist so different from the money we have today. Unfortunately no matter how much i researched i really struggled to find anything else about this other than what was on the catawiki auction site. My next search was on bronze money as the sun coin was dated to around 1100/700 B.C (Catawiki, 2017), i wanted to explore coin shapes and also how long bronze was used as a form of currency. This online auctions claims that this objects


  • Bibliography

Metal Supermarkets UK – Stainless Steel, Aluminium, Bright, Black, Engineering, Bronze, Copper, Brass, Tool, Galvanized. (2017). Difference Between Copper, Brass and Bronze | Metal Supermarkets. [online] Available at: [Accessed 11 Oct. 2017].


Collection of bronze objects. (2017).Available at :×6-cm-bronze-sickle-18-cm-and-bronze-arrowhead-5-cm-3x [accessed 11 Oct 2017]




Surface and plane


During Our Thursday talks with Jon we went over the principles and elements of design. I found it helpful to go back to basics and discuss the basic point so design such as point line colour. I found the surface and plane particularly interesting as i am looking at making a form that intercepts planes.

” In geometry, a moving point generates a line, a moving line generates a plane, and a moving plane—a rectangular solid. Planes are ubiquitous design elements: the walls of your apartment, the painting on the wall, the windowpane, and the paper you write on. The built world is planar and geometric.”  (Elements of design, Moodle)

In context to my work a plane is a surface, i want to create two contrasting surfaces that meet and intercept each other to visually create one object.

 (Intersection curve, Wikipedia).Although Wikipedia is not a reliable source, i find it doesn’t hurt to use it to get a general ideas from the site if its difficult to find sources. i managed to find this diagram from the website about intercepting planer, or a intersection curve as wiki calls it. Here are two parallel surfaces meeting and essentially cutting through each other this is an interception.

The site tutor vista site a mathematics tutoring website gives the definition of “the intercept is said to be the interruption in the continuous process. In mathematics, the intercept is defined as the portion of a line segment which is cut off either by axis or by Y axis or by both. ” (Tutorvista)

Slope of Intercept Graph(tutor vista)

My plan for the bowl is to create a geometric bowl, working on angles within two different layers of the bowl. The use of angles and mathematics Technics should make a really interesting interception of the ceramic and metal surfaces and planes.


The description from the elements of design for surface is “Surface is one of the first characteristics of form perceived by a viewer. Texture is that aspect of a surface that we can experience tactile. Texture is contextual—i.e. smooth is smoother when contrasted with rough” (Element of design, Moodle)

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These are a few pictures form searching ‘surfaces’ in google (Surfaces, google)

I plan for the surface of my bowl to be quite important. as my words involve materiality, honest, and contrast. i do not want to hide the surface of the bowl behind any covering such as enamel or glazing that takes away from the materials potentially hidden . many glazes enhance the ceramic or ads a honest contrast to the bronze along side it.



Element of design, Moodle, available at:, 2017. [accessed on 10 Oct 2017]

Intersection curve, 2016. Available at: [Acessed on 26 Oct 2017]

Slop and intercept, Tutorvista, 2017. Available at: [Accessed on 10 Oct 2017]

Surfaces, google, 2017. Available at: [ Accessed on 10 Oct 2017]


Geometric & Biomorphic shapes

 “adjectiveAlso, geometrical
1. of or relating to geometry or to the principles of geometry.”(,2017)

5.a geometric pattern, design, etc.:

an ornate and handsome geometric.” (,2017)
“geometric shapes-are regular precise, Ex- rectangles and circles
  • straight (rectilinear)
  • curved (curvelinear)” (Slideshare, chapter 2 .p33)
We first understand geometric shapes as regular 2D shapes such as squares, circles and triangles to name a few examples. Often geometric shapes have vertices and lines connecting to making interior points or angles. precision is usually needed to create geometric shapes  or form and any irregularities can off set the desired shape.
in my sketch book i had a quick sketch of geometric shapes, i used these doodles as a ground point for my geometric designs, next to a page of biomorphic forms they help me anchor my designs to either a geometric or biomorphic form. To create these pages i used shapes from memory and a simple google search. (Geometric shapes, google images)

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1.a painted, drawn, or sculptured free form or design suggestive inshape of a living organism, especially an ameba or protozoan” (,2017)

“Organic shapes- have a natural appearance.
  • biomorphic shapes
  •  amorphous shapes” (Slideshare, chapter 2 .p33)

Biomorphic shapes are a much more irregular or fluid form, the opposite to a geometric form. These shapes are not defined by precision although may examples do not need a precise hand to create them. Thes shapes are also found in natural and can be tricky to replicate.  Biomorphic as the term is best used to describe organic forms or organisms

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Bibliography (2017). the definition of geometric. [online] Available at: [Accessed 8 Oct . 2017].
Google images. (2017). Geometric shapes [online] Available at:
Slideshare.(2009). Chapter 2. [online] Available at:

Initial Ideas

As Functional as it is beautiful…

A Bowl that is Honest, is Functional, Has been Engineered, A bowl that embodies Contrast, Materiality and involves metal.

Contrast is the first word that really strikes me, to have to materials that are polar opposites that are honest and earthy in their aesthetic and nature. I want to engineer two materials to be harmonious but be clearly different and clearly themselves as materials.

Bronze and Ceramic. Two very different mediums with different thermal requirement, processes time constraints. Yet two very humble materials.

My six words that i choose from the list made from the pecha kutcha presentations were:

  • Engineering
  • contrast
  • materiality
  • funtional
  • metal
  • honest.

I created four initial and completely different design to start my off. The first was a textural bronze bowl encased in a layer of slumped glass to use both the bronze but in theory make it functional by not having any of the bronze exposed which would tarnish and potentially be poisonous if it were used domestically.

1 link to sketch book image of the glass and bronze bowl 

The second ideas involved a gradient of casting metals poured on top of each other within a mould. in theory depending on the metals poured the weights would making almost an ombre effect of bronze copper and aluminium. However the metals require different temperature, more than likely wouldn’t mix and meld and we do not have the facilities to heat 3 metal at one time to pour them at nearly the same time and temperature to try and make one object of the 3 metals.

2 link to sketch book image of the various metal bowl. 

The third idea was an idea i had been think about for a while. I am very intrigued by the contrast of bronze and ceramic, and if they could be joined as one object. The concept is to create a ceramic bowl with recesses carved or built into it creating a negative space. within that space i would in theory pour bronze to create bands that would hopefully bond to the ceramic. By pouring i was expecting the priceless to help bring the two components and make one object. However the temperature difference of the materials would either not allow the bronze to be poured and would more than likely crack the ceramic. also it would be difficult to limit the pour just to the inlays to the bowl. After many chats with Dallas and Matt we decided that the idea of pouring the metal is not plausible. However i could make a frame to sit around the ceramic. I was able to do some form of this in second year and have decided on my bowl to try and push the limits before experimenting further the concept of metal frames.

3 Link to sketch book images of the ceramic and bronze bowl. 

The final initial idea is the nut and bolt idea. This included a ceramic bowl with one, two maybe even three ceramic bolts attached to the underside of the bowl. There would then be a bronze bowl to encase the ceramic with holes to allow it to pass over the bolts. followed by bronze nuts to secure the layers together, and if theirs more than one act as legs.

4 Link to sketchbook images of Nut ‘n’ Bolt bowl

Out of the four initial ideas only two are actually plausible the ceramic and bronze and the nut’n’ bolt bowl. I would like to experiment further the use of layering materials especially with a fastening such as the bolts.

Pecha Kucha

The first day back involved a pecha kucha presentation of our ideal object, the project was called Gesamtkunstwerk project.  this involved a presentation of 15 slides, each slide stayed on the screen for 20 seconds then moving on which in total made the presentation 4 minutes long. there was no text aloud, just the visual aids and my self talking about the objects i had chosen. 

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Marcel Duchamp- Fountain 1917-1964. Taken a ordinary and functional object that is overlooked and placed in in a gallery for a  visual and contextual purpose. He was the first to blur the lines of functional and aesthetic


Barbara Hepworth- Not overly contextual, her works more based on the physical object and its presence within a space.Material,  Process,  shape,  form,  colour,  proportions


Richard Serra, Matter of time. Cortan steel, protective rust, Scale, engineering used to manufacture and create balanced pieces of metal. How the huge torques and ellipses effect you’re spacial awareness of the room and your perception of walking straight.

matterof time

John Lewis dinner set. Gold, colour story, shape, innovative basket although the function of said basket is questionable. Stands out aesthetically but still very functionable.

john lewis

Copper mug, tk maxx, Pure copper mug looks fantastic however a very good conductor so not suitable for hot drinks and tends to tarnish.


Julian Stair & Simone Ten Hompel, collaboration between a ceramacist and silversmith which they “ re nature” the vessel and balanced and minimal combination of ceramic and metal

simone ten homepl and julian stair

Young-I Kim, emotional connection. Showing copper in different ways by enhancing it with enamel and gold leaf, minimal form allows the glow to contribute equally as the shape and material.


Ladies and gentleman studios. Brass and copper lighting. Minimal lines exposed and frame the light bulb. Incorporating it in the design but not hiding any of the components that create the light. Honest design, nothing hidden.


Norwegian design company- Tent 2 years ago catalogue picture. lighting that helps improve air quality by introducing plants. Aesthetic and functional.


Forge.Craft in the bay. Nils hint. Forged iron, ready made tool, and gilding. Gradient from shiny gold and new to used old with history a story. Balance, Colours, mediums, History


Forge. Craft in the bay. Christian Vaughan Jones. Forged steel and limestone. Using different material that reach completely differently to force. Resistance and capturing the moment of impact.


New designers. The use of 3 traditional materials used in a innovative way to re create a common object into something more visually appealing and expensive. An object that could be useful but also looks good.


New designers. Anthony Milton. Kintsuki. Gold played wire. Historical vale i may look in to. Visual effect of the delicate and natural form of the gold lines.


Visiting New Designers 2017

I had never previously visited New Designers but had heard from previous students and tutors about the show, but have never been able to go. I understood it to be a graduate show where art students were able to display their work to reps of large and small brands over the space of two weeks. However I did not expect the quantity of textile students to dominate the space. However during the second week is very design based where the majority of product designers display their work. From discussion i have had most Makers have gone with the first week where contemporary applied art show. As makers we fall across many disciplines and i can see how it can be difficult to decided when to show. A draw back of new designer is the price. It is incredibly expensive to organise the show and to to stay in London.


I appreciate all areas and mediums of art and design. However certain mediums appeal to me more than others. I found there were some brilliant patterns, colours and concepts but we walked through the textile area relatively quickly. After a few trips round we finally found the more 3D based work, which was hidden away in the side rooms… we decided to visit the recently graduated makers. I was a bit shocked at the size of the space for their money and how easy it was to just walk straight past them. Although i think they did well considering their space, it did make me re think about whether new designs would be worth it. I’ve heard mixed reviews from tutors and graduates. Some were able to network, some received job offers, commissions and some got nothing. Although id argue that going through the process of applying for a show, curating, travelling with work, working on social skills and networking. As helpful as these skills are it can be a bit dis-heartening to not receive any offers when potentially your peers are.

I was able to talk to a Graduate from Essex school of art who made an interesting form based on cracks of a bowl for a kintsugi style piece. The pieces were made from gold plated wire that followed the cracks of a cracked bowl. They had an ethereal presence, a thin cold form just floating on a shelf. they were beautiful in their iridescence and simplicity.


The artists was a graduate called Anthony Milton, who i spoke all about his work and my future ideas from my graduate show. He suggested i try PMC as a substitute from pouring bronze as it is a clay and metal based substance. Thanks to this i now have him on Instagram where we follow each others professional blog on the process of our practices.

Here are some other photos from objects that stood out to me.

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Conrad Shawcross


Conrad Shawcross is a British who creates metal sculptures based on science and philosophy, these sculptures are mechanical creating a surrounding grid of shadows that change and move as the kinetic sculptures moves its form.  The sculptures are made of connecting geometric shapes enhancing and complimenting the mathematical movement of the mechanics.

i have looked more in to his light work which is solely based of the differing shadows created from the kinetic sculptures along side the viewers perception of time like in his work Timepiece 2013 in the Round house London.

Along side is technically perfects metal sculptures with a deep context of  Paradigms

broad str 2

I have been looking in to the contrast between sculpture and shadow and metal and space, both very distinguished from each other creating distinctive and beautiful patterns. However Shawcross has been able to create aesthetic pieces with a meaningful and in depth context about philosophy mathematics, perception. these themes take knowledge to understand and translate in to physical piece. on a smaller scale i am investigate the balance of contrast and the balance between function and beauty, a more physical concept but an in depth one inspired from Shawcross’s use of physical and not.